Where Are We in the Universe? (Issue #20)

By: Nicole Willett

blog 20 MWG and sun teachastronomy com

Imagine a shapeless infinite area of subatomic particles.  All of the particles slowly started to be attracted to each other.  Over millions of years clumps of particles formed and even coalesced into molecules and compounds.  After millions more years the compounds formed into small objects, probably pebbles.  After a billion years or so there were pockets of material that were separated by millions of light years.  These pockets of material were primitive galaxies and they can be 100,000 light years or more across.  They were swirling around and inside of these young galaxies, like our Milky Way Galaxy,  were primordial solar systems.

blog 20 scale of the planets and stars -bailescu A solar system like ours, started with a swirling cloud of gas and dust.  Our solar system is approximately one light year across.  As this one light year across solar system was taking shape approximately 5 billion years ago, there were somewhere between 200 and 400 billion other solar systems forming in the Milky Way Galaxy.   In the universe it is estimated that the 100 billion (1011) galaxies make up 70 sextillion (70 x 1022  ) stars in the universe.  *These numbers are estimates and each publication may have a slightly different number and each year they refine the data.

blog 20 solar systemAs our home solar system started taking shape, the bulk of the mass went to the center, where the sun was born.  As soon as she had enough mass and gravity to force together those first few hydrogen atoms in a process called nuclear fusion, our sun became a star. The sun turned on.  Without her we would not exist.  Think about that when you look at her every day.   Around our Sun were countless particles, molecules, and compounds.  As these objects were attracted to each other they became larger and larger.  These interactions formed the planets, moons, asteroids, meteors, and comets.  The solar system probably had between 50 and 100 planets when it first started taking shape.  It was very chaotic and there was no definite order to the solar system at this point.  We know that more than likely the orbits we see now of the planets were probably a lot different 4 billion years ago.  As the solar system has matured and become a bit more stable, we have the order of the 8 planets that we see now.   The order starting at the Sun and moving outward is:  Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

So to map out the universe from largest to smallest the list is as follows:

blog 20 scale_of_the_universe bThe Universe, filaments and groups of galaxies, galaxies, solar systems, planets, you!

So, why are you reading this on an educational blog about Mars?  The reason is simple.  Our star, the sun, has a finite life.  We must understand our place in the universe in order to appreciate the importance of why we should send humans to Mars.  Mars is our neighbor, with many similarities to Earth.  We must learn to inhabit other blog 20 humans on mars fanpop comworlds if we are going to sustain humanity.  We are life, we have the ability to preserve ourselves and venture out into our solar system and then to other solar systems.  We have discovered thousands of other planets in a very short time.  Our neighboring star system has planets.  It would behoove us to learn how to go there.  But first we must take steps, the first giant leap was a man on the Moon, the next enormous leap will be humans on Mars, and the next colossal leap will be humans to Alpha Centauri and beyond.

~Humans to Mars as a bridge to the stars.

[Images: teachastronomy, bailescu, static, fanpop]


Mars versus the Moon (Issue #19)

a moonby: Nicole Willett

Becoming a space faring civilization is the goal of millions of Earthlings.  If one pays attention to the universe around him, it is impossible to deny its ability to cause breathtaking humility.  We long to explore, to expand, to go out and touch a piece of another planetary body.  This longing is what encouraged NASA and their supporters to stand behind the Apollo missions to the Moon.   President John F. Kennedy said, “We choose to  go to the Moon not because it is easy… but because it is hard.”  We need to find that will again.  The interest in going out and exploring and settling Mars is obvious.  One indication is the fact that when applications for a trip to Mars opened, there were 78,000 applicants to go in just two weeks.  Other clues are the sheer number of private organizations that are being created dedicated to human Mars exploration.  Inspiration Mars is one example.  Its founder, Dennis Tito, believes so wholeheartedly in a humans to Mars mission, that he is funding the first two years of the project himself.

a Mission to Mars Pic 06Some people suggest that we should not go to Mars; we should go to the Moon first.  While that may be an option, there are many reasons for sending humans to Mars and not the Moon.  Humanity needs a new place to settle, not just plant a flag and go home.  We need natural resources in order to make a comfortable and manageable new home for humanity.  There needs to be rich soil for growing crops, an atmosphere to protect us from harmful radiation, mineral ore for technology, and water.

The Moon made big news when it was discovered that there were immense amounts of water in the permanently shaded craters at the North and South poles.  It has also been discovered that the rocks of the Moon possess water.  However, the water would have to be processed and mined in such a way that it would be an extraordinary expense of energy to process the water into a usable form.   However, Mars has water seemingly everywhere we look.  The Phoenix Lander landed on top of an ice field covered by a thin layer of Martian regolith.  The soil on Mars contains an abundance of water.  The polar caps have enormous amounts of H2O.  Also, scientists theorize, because of the geological history of Mars and it’s similarities to Earth, it is very likely that there are underground reservoirs of water present.

earth-moon-mars-size-comparisonsThe Moon contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.  These are essential elements for survival.  However, these elements are found in very small concentrations of parts per million.  Oxygen is abundant on the Moon.  It is present bound in oxides, such as ferrous oxide and magnesium oxide.  In order to utilize the oxygen on the Moon, it must be separated from the tightly bound oxides.  This requires excessive amounts of energy to reduce into their separate elements.  We have seen that there are vast amounts of H2O on Mars, hence, oxygen is abundant.  Separating the water molecule on Mars is far less daunting than separating the oxides on the Moon.  Consequently, oxygen will be more readily accessible for future Marsonauts.

As far as energy production is concerned, the Moon does not have an atmosphere so there is no way to produce wind energy.  There are no active geothermal hotspots on the Moon, so that power source is out of the question as well.  Mars has a thin atmosphere, but it does generate enough wind for turbines to generate power for future Martian settlers.  There are geothermal hotspots on Mars that occasionally shoot water up to the surface.  We could house geothermal energy production stations at these sites.  The Red Planet also possesses enormous supplies of carbon and hydrogen.  These elements are used in to manufacture silicon.  Solar panels utilize silicon for their photovoltaic cells.  As one can see Mars has the potential for a large power base, whereas the Moon has less potential to generate large amounts of energy.  Humanity requires a rich power base in order to maintain their vibrant civilization.  Mars has that requirement in abundance.

greenhouseThe regolith on the Moon is deficient in the necessary elements to grow crops.  Any crops grown on the Moon would require the rich soil be imported from Earth.  Also, the sunlight is more powerful on the Moon, but there is no atmosphere to protect any plants that may be grown there.  Very large and thick protective glass would have to be manufactured in order to protect the crops from the harmful radiation from the sun.  Another issue with growing crops on the Moon is the 28 day light/dark cycle. Plants on Earth have evolved to a 24 hour light/dark cycle in order to grow and reproduce successfully.  The Red Planet has all of the elements necessary to grow crops present in its soil right now.  Some scientists report the alkalinity of the Martian soil would be conducive to growing green beans and asparagus.  The atmosphere is already thick enough to protect Martian plants from solar flares.  Thin-walled greenhouses on Mars would be necessary at first.   The ingredients for manufacturing the plastics needed for greenhouses exist on Mars now and could be manufactured quickly once humans have set up the necessary infrastructure.  Also, there is a 24 hour and 37 minute light/dark cycle which would be almost exactly what Earth plants have evolved to survive in.

green marsThe fact that Mars has so many similarities to Earth is the reason why it is the best candidate for the expansion of the human civilization.  The axial tilt is within one-half of a degree, causing seasons.  The day is within 37 minutes, having a very similar light/dark cycle to Earth.  The temperatures are within the range which is not beyond our technology for tolerability.  Once we land and settle on Mars, the next step is terraforming.  We will turn Mars into an Earth-like planet, in order to have an enduring civilization present.

gliese667c_habitableOn June 25, 2013, it was reported that the extrasolar system named Glieise 667, which is only 22 light years from Earth, has three planets orbiting in its habitable zone.  Meaning the temperatures are conducive to the presence of liquid water and possibly life.  What does this have to do with the Moon versus Mars?  Everything.  If we choose wisely, and send humans to Mars, we will be more prepared to be able to send humans to other star systems when the time is right.  Mars is the bridge to places like Glieise 667. Humans grow or decay, expand or die.  The Mars Society thinks you should live.

~Humans to Mars as a bridge to the stars…..

[Images: NASA, veganshealth, spaceopedia, NatGeo, NASA]

Teaching Mars (Issue #12)

by: Nicole Willett

As a full time secondary Astronomy teacher and the Education Director for The blog 12i abcteachMars Society, I teach a theme-based curriculum.  The theme is centered around Mars, putting humans on the Red Planet and the astrobiology of Mars.  I would not recommend starting any curriculum with Mars.  I always begin with a general overview of the solar system and our place in the universe.  This includes a presentation on the scale of the universe from quarks (sub-atomic particles) to filaments (the largest structures in the universe).  I continue with the planets, starting at Mercury and making my way through all eight planets.  We discuss the Earth-Moon system and the many spacecraft and humans that have visited our next door neighbor.  I also include the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) craft such as the Space Transportation System (STS) program and the International Space Station (ISS).  We discuss the unmanned and manned missions.  This sets up a base for the manned Mars mission proposals.

blog 12j space comWhen I reach the Mars chapter, I give basic Martian planetary data, orbital data, geology, etc.  I point out the similarities with the Martian and Earth day, having only an approximate 40 minute time difference.  Also, I display the axial tilt of both planets, Earth having a 23.5o tilt and Mars having a 25o tilt.  I point out that Earth’s seasons are caused by this tilt and that Mars also has seasons, even though it has a year that is twice as long.  We discuss the moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos.  I compare and contrast the Earth-Moon system with the Martian system.  I point out the fact that Mars’ moons are most likely captured asteroids that are much smaller than Earth’s moon, closer to Mars than our moon, and they orbit much more rapidly.  We discuss what will happen when Phobos crashes into the surface of Mars and when Deimos drifts away and the affects that will have on the humans who will inhabit the Red Planet at that point.

Next we discuss the spacecraft that have visited Mars from Mariner to Curiosity.  We learn the difference between an orbiter, a rover, and a lander.  The instrumentation on many of the spacecraft are discussed, such as different types of cameras and spectrometers and the purpose of each.  I then continue lecturing about the discoveries made on Mars using the aforementioned instruments.  Some discoveries I point out are the Martian blueberries, or hematite, discovered by the Opportunity Rover.  This discovery verified the assumption by some that water stood on Mars for long periods of time.  Perchlorate was also discovered and I ask them to ponder what affects that would have on any life that may exist on Mars now and the affects that will have on any plant life humans may bring to Mars in the future.   The implications of all of these discoveries are discussed in many ways.  I always encourage my students to ask many questions, open their mind to new ideas, and to question everything they read or hear, including what I say.

I wrap up the Mars section, after four to six weeks, with a student lecture from each student.  They are given a rubric to follow and they must present a five to seven minute power point (or similar format) about a specific subject.  I compile a list for them ahead of time and they get to pick from things such as specific spacecraft, terraforming, Phobos and Deimos, Olympus Mons, Valles Marineris, and many more.  This assignment shows the students that there are many resources available, print and web based, to find information about the Red Planet.  Also, it lets them know how many thousands of people have dedicated their entire lives to research and explore Mars. 

The second semester starts out by wrapping up the outer solar system, and continues with star formation and life cycles, galaxies, and extra-solar planets, and astrobiology.  Meanwhile, the Mars Project gets underway.  This is a complex and comprehensive project that encompasses all of the prior sciences the students have learned, ranging from biology to physics to geology and everything in between.    This culminates in a springtime Science Night where all of the projects are presented.  The projects are heavily Mars based.   212blog 12g nat geo com

One group is building a Mars Curiosity Rover which will be “driven” by guests over the Martian terrain which is also built by students.  The second class is building Earth based and LEO spaceports where the manned spacecraft bound for Mars will launch.  The third class is building dioramas representing six groups that are sending humans to the Red Planet.  Group 1 is Physics and Engineering who determine the trajectory to Mars and develop habitats for the landing crew.  Group 2 is Astronomy which researches weather patterns, the sky view on Mars and the moons.  Group 3 is Geology and they research the volcanos, Valles Marineries, the history of water, soil and rocks.  Group 4 is Chemistry and they delve into the atmosphere and decide how to utilize the gases to make fuel for a return to Earth.  Group 5 is Astrobiology and they are tasked with finding a “Martian” of some type to study.  The astrobiologists send the organisms to the Group 6 Biology Lab for DNA sequencing, to compare Martian DNA to Earth DNA.  The final class deals with terraforming Mars.  They are divided into six groups which build Martian dioramas to reflect Mars at Terraforming Year Zero all the way through year 1,000.  They must go from setting up habitats for the first human, building greenhouses, all the way through melting subsurface ice which will eventually thicken the atmospheric pressure.  At this point the water flows on the surface and rain falls with a backdrop of a blue sky and white clouds.  Each student must follow a rubic which includes a participation grade, a research paper and the appearance of the visual presentation.

The students thoroughly enjoy these projects.  They feel very engaged in science when they get to do hands on projects.  This project is completed by high school seniors; however, it can be tailored to any age group, broken up into pieces, or even separated into different grade levels.  Please see the Official Mars Society Curriculum for other ideas about teaching a Martian theme based class.  Feel free to contact me with any questions.  nicolew@marssociety.org

Consumable Water on Mars Confirmed by Opportunity and Curiosity (Issue #18) UPDATE

by: Nicole Willett

*****UPDATED 9/28/2013*****

mars-rover-landing-sequence-landed_57831_600x450Several papers have been published regarding the findings of Curiosity’s first few month’s on the surface of Mars.  The findings are of great importance with regard to water.  The rover has confirmed an incredible two percent of the surface soil is composed of water.  Scientists said if humans were to land on Mars, they could scoop up soil and heat it up and extract water from it.  Estimates suggest that approximately two pints of water is available per cubic foot of soil.  This is an astonishing discovery.  The benefits for humans that wish to travel to and settle on the Martian surface are immense.  NASA stated water is likely spread across the entire planet bound to the soil.  The implications of this finding make it much more likely that humans will be able to inhabit the Red Planet in the near future.  It also opens up more of the planet for human landing places and settlement opportunities.

Original blog published June 9, 2013:

As we anxiously await the results of the latest drill sample from the Curiosity Rover, we have received exciting news from the long lived Opportunity Rover team. Steve Squyres, who will be the recipient of the Mars Pioneer Award 2013 at the 16th Annual Mars Society Convention Aug 15-18th, participated in a NASA teleconference regarding the exciting findings about water on Mars. The fact that once again we have reconfirmed water on Mars is not the exciting part.

Esperance imaged from above
Esperance imaged from above

Opportunity has spent quite a lot of time working at Endeavor Crater and had to maneuver very strategically to get in position to study a small rock named Esperance. This was a very difficult task for the aging rover, since she has a bad shoulder joint. However the team stated that Opportunity is in extremely good health and has no major concerns as of right now. The rover used several samples from the rock which is the oldest rock that Opportunity has studied. The team showed a graphic, displaying the chemistry of the rocks, with seven measurements taken from different layers. The elements found in Esperance were Aluminum, Iron, Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium. The results from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer indicate that the

APXS graphic Esperance Rock results
APXS graphic Esperance Rock results

rock was higher in Aluminum and Silica and lower in Calcium and Iron than rocks previously studied by Opportunity. Below the dashed lines are igneous rocks; above the line are rocks including clays (Montmorillomite) that have been altered by water. The lower black square indicates the readings from the average Martian crust. The yellow circles closest to that block indicate the samples taken from the surface of the rock. As the samples ascend vertically above the dashed line it indicates samples that are further inside the rock. The Opportunity team used the Rock Abrasion Tool to reach the subsurface of the rock. Starting at the surface she discovered that the water that had most recently covered Esperance was acidic and the soil more closely resembled the average Martian crust. As the rover progressively scraped and studied Esperance, it was discovered that Mars went through several cycles of water activity in the region where Opportunity is now working. The cycle of water described by the team was that water was present in the area before the Endeavor Crater formed, next the crater formed and the rocks piled up on the crater rim, and then setting water produced gypsum. This is indicative of lengthy multistep and continual water activity. At Esperance the water flowed through the rocks and had a higher clay concentration than the rocks studied at Matijevic Hill. A high clay concentration is evidence of water that had a neutral pH. “There appears to have been extensive, but weak, alteration of Whitewater Lake, but intense alteration of Esperance along fractures that provided conduits for fluid flow,” Squyres said. “Water that moved through fractures during this rock’s history would have provided more favorable conditions for biology than any other wet environment recorded in rocks Opportunity has seen.”

Esperance Rock
Esperance Rock

The big news was that the Opportunity team stated was that water with a neutral pH is very conducive to prebiotic chemistry. We know there are organisms on Earth that survive in an acidic environment, but the science points to prebiotic chemistry favoring a neutral pH. Squyres stated that this is the best that we have found with Opportunity, the most compelling evidence for habitability. The most fundamental conditions for habitability were present at this location. The NASA team also stated that this was water that could have been consumed. This is a familiar statement to that of the Curiosity team a few months ago. The Curiosity team found an ancient riverbed in Gale

Ancient Riverbed imaged by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater
Ancient Riverbed imaged by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater

Crater and also found that the water that flowed there was freshwater that was neutral in pH and could have also been consumed. At a press conference in March 2013 Dr. John Grotzinger, project scientist for the Curiosity mission, went so far as to state, “We have found a habitable environment. The water that was here was so benign and supportive of life that if a human had been on the planet back then, they could drink it.”

This pattern may seem redundant to some; however we must follow the scientific method of testing and retesting, confirming and reconfirming. We must verify these results many times because there will be humans on Mars and we must know as much about our future home as possible. There are many reasons for this, some are obvious and some we haven’t even thought of yet. These results are exciting and very important to the future exploration and settlement of the Red Planet. ~On To Mars

[Images: NASA/JPL]